BLOCK 4 PORT SYSTEMS AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Knowing that 75% of international goods traffic moves through sea route the role of ports which provide the necessary infrastructure for handling goods traffic and help in increasing the efficiency of the overall transport system, assumes special significance. They act as a catalyst in India's overseas trade which is heavily dependent on ocean transport. You also know that transportation of cargo from shipper's premises to gateway port requires multiple handling involving several parties. This leads to many complexities and makes room for fraudulent practices (called maritime frauds) in international trade and, hence, requires a number of precautions to he taken by the buyer and sellers, freight forwarders, vessel owners and charterers, banks and insurers and to develop machinery for their detection and prevention. The International Chamber of Commerce and International Maritime Bureau play in important role in this regard. However, it is observed that while shipowners act as a cohesive force through liner conferences, the shippers are not that well-organised. Hence, there is need to safeguard shippers interests and maintain harmonious relations between the two for which an organised system of regular consultation becomes necessary. In this block, consisting of three units (Units 14 to 16). You will learn about the port systems, the various dimensions of maritime frauds, and the institutional arrangements for resolving shippers' problems.

Unit 14 describes the role of ports in overseas trade of a country, and outlines the capacity and traffic throughout at India's major ports, the problems faced by them and the policy initiatives taken by the Government of India for their development.

Unit 15 deals with maritime frauds and discusses their dimensions and causes, the precautionary measures to be adopted by the parties involved, and the role of International Chamber of Commerce and its specialised agencies for their detection and prevention.

Unit 16 deals with institutional arrangements for resolving shippers' problems and describes the legislative measures adopted by USA and Australia, the consultative arrangements made in India and the provisions of UN convention on the code of conduct for liner shipping.



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